The DNS management console fails to update or gets “stuck”

Another quick tip here.  I recently had a DNS (Domain Name System) console that was failing to update.  I knew that DNS was functioning properly and that all the records were there.  They were just not showing up on this particular server.  This is actually a pretty easy fix.

To reset the DNS console, or most mmc consoles, you just need to delete the settings file.  There is a settings file for each user that has logged in.  This file is located at C:\Users\<username>\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\MMC\dnsmgmt.  You may notice other files in this directory.  Those files are the settings files for their respective mmc consoles.


Unable to extend an NTFS volume

Good afternoon.  I ran into an interesting issue this afternoon I wanted to share.  I had a customer that was receiving the following error:

“The volume cannot be extended because the number of clusters will exceed the maximum number of clusters supported by the filesystem.”

Unable to extend, cluster size

He encountered the error when trying to extend a volume.  The volume was 20TB (Terabytes) and he was trying to add another 19TB for a total of 39TB.  After some research I found, based on his setup, that the maximum volume size was 32.75TB.  We extended the volume to that size and we were done.

I figured someone might find it useful if I l go over the process of determining the maximum size for a volume.  There are a couple pieces of key information that are required.  The first is the maximum number of clusters in a NTFS volume.  This is 2^32 -1 clusters, or roughly 4 billion.  The second piece of information we need is the bytes per cluster.  To get this information, run the following command: fsutil fsinfo ntfsinfo x:
Replace the x: with the actual drive letter.  Below is output from the command.  In this example we see that we are using 4096 bytes per cluster or 4K for short.

bytes per cluster

Now that we have both pieces of information we just need to do some simple math to find the maximum volume size.  Multiply the maximum maximum number of clusters by the cluster size.  Taking the example above, that would be 4,294,967,295 * 4096 = 17,592,186,040,320 bytes.  To convert this to megabytes, divide the number by 1,048,576 (1024*1024).  In this example we get 16,777,215 Megabytes.

To make this even easier, here is a handy table:

Cluster size NTFS Max Size
512 bytes 2,199,023,255,040 (2TB)
1024 bytes 4,398,046,510,080 (4TB)
2048 bytes 8,796,093,020,160 (8TB)
4096 bytes 17,592,186,040,320 (16TB)
8192 bytes 35,184,372,080,640 (32TB)
16384 bytes 70,368,744,161,280 (64TB)
32768 bytes 140,737,488,322,560 (128TB)
65536 bytes 281,474,976,654,120 (256TB)

I hope you enjoyed this article.  If you have any suggestions or comments please leave them below.

Catch a misbehaving driver with verifier

Today I wanted to mix it up a little.  I want to talk a little about debugging, more specifically about using driver verifier.  If you have seen a Windows bug check, aka the blue screen of death, then you have probably seen a DRIVER_IRQL_NOT_LESS_OR_EQUAL.  This particular bug check has two codes associated with it; 0x0000000A and 0x000000D1.  In the majority of cases, this bug check is caused by a 3rd party driver that is misbehaving.  Most of the time the cause can be identified by debugging the kernel memory dump.  Sometimes however the problematic driver is paged out and is no longer present in the memory dump.  In this case we can use driver verifier to catch this misbehaving driver and force a bug check to happen before the driver is paged out.  The rest of this article will discuss how to enable driver verifier for this scenario.

  1. Click Start, or in Windows 2012 and higher right-click Start, and choose Run.  Type in verifier and click OK.
  2. From the select a task options, select “Create custom settings (for code developers)” and click Next.
    select a task
  3. From the select individual settings from this full list, tick the check box for Special pool and click Next.
    special pool
  4. From the select what drivers to verify options, select “Select driver names from a list” and click Next.
    select drivers to verify
  5. Sort the driver list by provider.  Tick the check box for all drivers that are not provided by Microsoft, and click Finish.  We do this so that we can monitor all 3rd party drivers.
    driver list
  6. Reboot the server.

After the server is rebooted all 3rd party drivers will be monitored.  If one of them should misbehave, driver verifier will force the system to bug check.  It should then be fairly simple to find the problem driver in the memory dump.

If you have any suggestions for this article, please leave a comment below.

Using PowerShell to create a split DNS zone

I ran across a great blog article on setting up a split DNS (Domain Name System) zone this morning.   It got me to thinking though, can I do this in PowerShell?  The answer is yes.  And it is quicker than using the DNS management console.  Change the zone name and IP address to match the name and server IP respectively.

  1. Add-DnsServerPrimaryZone <> -ReplicationScope “Forest”
  2. Add-DnsServerResourceRecord -A -Name “.” -ZoneName <> -IPv4Address <>


If you have a way of doing this command in one line I want to hear about it.  Post it in the comments below.

Domain controller time synchronization

Here is a scenario that I have run into a few times.  An Active Directory environment where the PDC (Primary Domain Controller) Emulator role is hosted on a virtualized domain controller that is running on Hyper-V.  It is perfectly acceptable to do this, however it is very likely  that the environment will suffer from time drift.  In some cases this it can be a big problem.  Here is a solution I have tested and found to work well.

  1. Remove time synchronization for the PDC Emulator in Hyper-V:
    • In the Hyper-V management console, go to the settings for the PDC Emulator domain controller.
    • Select Integration Services and uncheck Time synchronization.
  2. Set the PDC Emulator to synchronize with an external source.
    • Connect to the PDC emulator
    • Download and run the following Microsoft fix it.*  Set the NtpServer to,0x1
    • Run the following commands in an administrative command window:
      • net start w32time
      • w32tm /config /manualpeerlist:“,0x1” /syncfromflags:MANUAL /reliable:yes
      • w32tm /config /update
      • w32tm /resync
      • w32tm /resync /rediscover
    • In the same command window  run w32tm /query /status.  At this point the source should be
  3. Set the peer domain controllers to sync with the PDC Emulator.
    • Connect to each peer domain controller and run the following commands in an administrative command window:
      • w32tm /config /syncfromflags:DOMHIER /update
      • net stop w32time && net start w32time
      • w32tm /resync /force




* If the link no longer works, then go here and choose the fix it for me under “Configuring the Windows Time service to use an external time source.”

“Item Not Found” when attempting to delete a file or folder in Windows

I ran across this issue today with a customer and it took quite a bit of digging to find a solution.  Here is a screenshot of the error:

item not found error

In digging around I found there is a utility to address this issue, but I am cheap and don’t want to pay for something if I can find an alternate solution.  Without further ado, here is how you fix it.

To delete a file:

  1. Open an administrative command prompt.
  2. Run the following command: del “\\?\X:My Directory\Bad File.ext”  (Replace everything after \\?\ with the actual path to the problem file.)

To delete a folder/directory:

  1. Open an administrative command prompt.
  2. Run the following command: rd /s “\\?\X:My Directory\Bad Directory”  (Replace everything after \\?\ with the actual path to the problem directory.)


Where is that easy button?




Thanks to  Rayza73 who posted this on the Microsoft forums.